Gas Processing Modules

• Hydrocarbon Components and Physical Properties
• Introduction to Production and Gas Processing Facilities
• Qualitative Phase Behavior and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium
• Water/Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior
• Thermodynamics and Application of Energy Balances
• Fluid Flow
• Separation
• Heat Transfer Equipment Overview
• Pumps and Compressors Overview
• Refrigeration, NGL Extraction and Fractionation
• Contaminant Removal - Gas Dehydration
• Contaminant Removal - Acid Gas and Mercury

DURATION: approximately 4.5 hours

FEE: \$395

This skill module describes the basic terminology and hydrocarbon nomenclature commonly used in the oil and gas industry. This skill module also explains methods used to determine hydrocarbon fluid composition and approaches to and implications of the characterization of heavy hydrocarbons (C6+) in mixtures. This module also demonstrates how to estimate hydrocarbon physical properties (density and viscosity) for both liquids and vapors, including their purpose and use as applied in facilities engineering calculations.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Describe the concept of atomic mass, molecular mass, and the mol
• Identify the four main hydrocarbon groups
• Practice the concept of relative density
• Discuss how a gas chromatograph works, the limitations of various analysis methods, and the difference between an extended analysis and a standard gas chromatographic analysis
• Recognize the uncertainties involved with characterizing the C6+ components in a natural gas, condensate or crude oil stream, and describe the relationship of these factors with hydrocarbon liquid composition
• Describe an Equation of State, it’s purpose and uses
• Define standard (normal) conditions for SI and FPS units, and calculate the molar volume at these conditions
• Describe the gas compressibility factor and use it to calculate gas density
• Define the property “viscosity”, list applications where it is used, and describe correlations that can be used to predict its value
• Estimate the density of a hydrocarbon liquid at a specified temperature and pressure

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 4 hours

FEE: \$395

This module provides an overview of production and gas processing facilities. The concepts addressed in this module include: 1) the crude oil and natural gas value chains, 2) common contaminants in production streams, 3) crude oil, produced water and natural gas quality specifications, 4) typical production facility and gas processing schemes, and 5) NGL products the economics of their recovery. Knowledge of these basic concepts is critical to understanding the selection and specification of processing facilities between the wellhead and product markets.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• State typical crude oil and produced water specifications
• Describe process flows for each stream in production facilities
• List problems associated with and strategies to deal with solids production, e.g. sand, wax, asphaltenes
• List the components, including contaminants, found in produced gas streams
• State typical natural gas sales or transportation specifications
• Calculate higher heating value and Wobbe number
• List the products of a typical natural gas processing plant, their associated markets, and describe common terminology
• Describe typical process flows for each stream in gas processing facilities
• Explain the difference between gas conditioning to meet a HCDP specification and gas processing to recover NGLs
• Describe shrinkage and how it is calculated

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 4.5 hours

FEE: \$395

This skill module describes the phase or phases that exist at given conditions of pressure and temperature of single and multi-component systems. The skill module also explains the concepts of critical point, cricondentherm, cricondenbar, dense phase, and retrograde condensation. In addition, the module explains how to perform bubble point, dew point, and flash calculations, and describes how to stabilize hydrocarbon liquids using stage separation.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Describe pure component phase behavior
• Describe multicomponent phase behavior and phase envelopes
• Define critical point, cricondentherm, cricondenbar, dense phase, and retrograde condensation
• Summarize the effect of C6+ characterization on the shape of the phase envelope
• Recognize the effect of various non-hydrocarbon components on the shape of the phase envelope
• List examples of fundamental applications of phase envelopes in facilities design and operations
• Explain the concept of equilibrium vaporization ratio, K
• List the common methods of estimating K values
• Describe flash, bubble point, and dew point calculations and list examples of their application
• Describe the effect of composition on bubble point, dew point, and flash calculations for a hydrocarbon mixture
• Describe stabilization of hydrocarbon liquids using stage separation
• Summarize the differences between Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) and True Vapor Pressure (TVP)

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 6 hours

FEE: \$395

This skill module describes hydrates, explores conditions favoring hydrate formation, and discusses how to prevent hydrates from forming. The skill module also describes how to estimate the hydrate formation temperature of a natural gas stream and the key differences between low dosage hydrate inhibitors and thermodynamic inhibitors.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Estimate the water content of sweet and sour natural gas
• Describe the conditions that favor hydrate formation
• Estimate the hydrate formation temperature of a natural gas stream
• Compare and contrast the use of MeOH and MEG to prevent hydrate formation
• Describe the differences between low dosage hydrate inhibitors and thermodynamic inhibitors

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 3 hours

FEE: \$395

This module provides an overview of the concepts of thermodynamics, which is the foundation for all processing calculations. It also explains the first and second law of thermodynamics and their application in facilities. Also covered are applications of energy balance equations, the concepts of enthalpy and entropy, and an explanation of how to use P-H diagrams to perform calculations on a simple refrigeration system.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Define the terms system and surroundings and explain the difference between open and closed systems
• State the first law of thermodynamics and how it is applied to facilities
• Describe the second law of thermodynamics, and explain how it is applied to facilities
• Write the energy balance equations for a heat exchanger, valve, separator, and compressor
• Calculate the duty of a heat exchanger where no phase change occurs and also for an exchanger where a phase change does occur
• List methods used to estimate enthalpy and entropy
• Describe a P-H diagram and use it to perform calculations on a simple refrigeration system

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 5 hours

FEE: \$395

This module discusses the flow of fluid through a pipe segment. Single phase and multiphase flow are explored. In addition, simple correlations are used to estimate important fluid flow parameters.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Explain Bernoulli’s equation, including how to estimate and apply the friction factor
• Describe the difference between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
• Explain economic pipe diameter and describe typical velocity and pressure drop guidelines for sizing piping systems
• Calculate fluid velocity and estimate the pressure drop in a plant piping system using simple correlations
• Describe common gas transmission pipeline flow correlations and their applications
• Describe the parameters that affect heat transfer for various piping systems
• Describe the most common flow regimes in multiphase flow systems
• Explain the difference between liquid hold-up and liquid volume fraction and list factors that affect their value
• Describe common slugging mechanisms and list methods to limit or reduce the impact of slugging events
• Describe erosional velocity and explain how it can be estimated for various systems

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 4 hours

FEE: \$395

This skill module describes separators, their use and application, in the oil and gas industry. The principle of gas-liquid and oil-water separations are discussed along with separator sizing. This module also explains what are emulsions, how they form, and their influence on separator design. Also discussed are methods and equipment used to destabilize and eliminate emulsions.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Describe separator applications and common types of separators
• List the sizing criteria for 2-phase and 3-phase separators
• Discuss the principles of gas-liquid separation and how they are applied in separator design
• Describe the effect of inlet piping size and inlet devices on separator sizing
• List the types of mist extractors and describe typical applications
• Estimate separator size based on gas-liquid separation criteria
• Describe emulsions, how they form, and how they influence separator design
• Discuss how emulsions can be destabilized and eliminated
• Estimate the size of an oil dehydrator based on liquid-liquid separation criteria

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 4 hours

FEE: \$395

This module provides an overview of the heat transfer equipment and mechanisms commonly used in the oil and gas industry. The module also provides an overview including advantages, disadvantages, and applications of different types of heat exchangers.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Identify types of heat exchangers and common applications in oil and gas processing facilities
• Describe heat transfer mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation
• Define heat transfer coefficient and describe the primary parameters that affect its value
• Describe the rate equation used to calculate heat transfer area
• Describe the “effective temperature difference” and explain how it affects heat transfer area
• Estimate heat transfer surface area required for a heat exchanger application
• Describe shell and tube exchanger types and applications
• Describe compact heat exchangers and fired heaters
• List the four primary process cooling (heat rejection) methods
• Describe why air-cooled heat exchangers are so frequently used, key operating parameters, and the difference between induced draft and forced draft designs

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

Basics of Static Mechanical Equipment - BSM - Online

DURATION: approximately 5.5 hours

FEE: \$395

This module provides an overview of types of pumps and the basic principles and criteria that apply to all pumps. The emphasis is on process-type pumps used in surface facilities. The concepts of Cavitation, Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR), and Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) are also discussed. The second important focus in this module is compressors, including their applications, types, and selection criteria. The module ends with a discussion of the principles of operation of the various types of compressors.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Identify types of pumps and common applications in oil and gas processing facilities
• Describe how a pump selection chart can be used to select pump type
• Explain the relationship between head and pressure
• Calculate the pump power requirement
• Describe the differences in performance characteristics of centrifugal and positive displacement pumps
• Describe cavitation
• Define NPSHR and NPSHA
• Explain the principle of operation of a single stage centrifugal pump, and identify the main pump components
• Describe the system head curve and explain how it affects pump selection
• Explain the principle of operation of plunger pumps, common configurations, and identify the main pump components
• Identify types of compressors and common applications in oil and gas processing facilities
• Describe how a compressor selection chart can be used to select compressor type
• Explain the relationship between compressor head and pressure
• Calculate the compressor power requirement
• Estimate the compressor discharge temperature
• Explain the principle of operation of a centrifugal compressor, and identify the main compressor components
• Describe a centrifugal compressor performance curve, and identify and describe the surge line and stonewall
• Explain the principle of operation of a reciprocating compressor, and identify the main compressor components
• Explain the principle of operation of a rotary screw compressor, and identify the main compressor components
• List common drivers used for each compressor type
• Explain the relationship between compressor head and pressure
• Calculate the compressor power requirement
• Estimate the compressor discharge temperature
• Explain the principle of operation of a centrifugal compressor, and identify the main compressor components

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Basics of Rotating Mechanical Equipment - BRM - Online

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 5.5 hours

FEE: \$395

This module explains the concepts of mechanical refrigeration, valve and turbine expansion, and NGL extraction systems. The module also explains the process of fractionation in oil and gas operations.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• List the most common applications of refrigeration in oil and gas processing
• Review the operation of a mechanical refrigeration system, and describe the effect of condenser and chiller temperature on compressor operation and energy consumption
• Explain why economizers are commonly used in mechanical refrigeration systems
• Describe factors that are considered in selection of a refrigerant, and explain cascade refrigeration and why it is used
• Explain the operation of expansion refrigeration processes (valve and turboexpander)
• List the common process configurations for the different levels of NGL extraction (including HCDP control)
• Understand the difference between stage separation and fractionation
• Define relative volatility and how it affects the difficulty of separation
• Explain how a fractionator (distillation column) separates components, and describe the operation and purpose of the reboiler, condenser, reflux accumulator, and pump
• List types of internals used in fractionators to achieve mass transfer, and describe their advantages and disadvantages

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 4.5 hours

FEE: \$395

This module provides an overview of processes used to dehydrate natural gas with specific emphasis on the following two methods:

1. Absorption using glycol dehydration

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• List the three most common gas dehydration options used in oil and gas processing
• Identify typical applications
• Describe the components and process flow in a typical glycol dehydration unit
• State the typical TEG circulation ratios for a glycol dehydration system
• Determine the minimum lean TEG concentration required for a given water removal requirement
• Calculate the volumetric TEG circulation rate based on a given water removal requirement
• Describe the effect of the number of trays or height of packing on the contactor performance
• Describe the sizing parameters for the contactor and regeneration system
• Describe the co-absorption BTEX, H2S, CO2 and the TEG; and list the methods to mitigate emissions
• Explain the process of adsorption
• List the common adsorbents used in gas dehydration
• Describe the typical adsorption dehydration cycle for a molecular sieve unit
• Describe the factors that cause the useful capacity of the sieve to be less than the new equilibrium capacity
• List the parameters that affect the sizing of the adsorber vessels
• Describe the mol sieve regeneration process and factors that affect its design and operation

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online

DURATION: approximately 3.5 hours

FEE: \$395

This module explains the processes of removing mercury and acid gases from a natural gas stream. The module also describes the basic amine process flow diagram (PFD) and explains the advantages of using MDEA for removing H2S but leaving CO2 in the gas stream. Also discussed are when to use a Claus sulfur recovery unit (SRU) and a tail-gas-clean-up unit (TGCU) vs. acid gases injection and why liquid product treating may be required.

DESIGNED FOR petroleum engineers, production operations staff, reservoir engineers, facilities staff, drilling and completion engineers, geologists, field supervisors and managers, field technicians, service company engineers and managers.

YOU WILL LEARN TO:

• Explain why mercury is removed from a natural gas stream, and list two common mercury absorbents
• List the process options for acid gas removal from a natural gas stream
• Describe a basic amine process flow diagram
• Estimate the amine circulation rate, regenerator reboiler duty, and circulation pump power for an AGRU
• State the conditions where a physical solvent may be advantageous over an amine solvent for acid gas removal
• List examples where it may be advantageous to selectively remove H2S from a gas stream but leave some or all of the CO2 in the gas
• Describe the process flow diagram for a standard Claus sulfur recovery unit (SRU)
• Explain why a tail-gas-clean-up unit (TGCU) may be required, and list processes that may be applied
• Describe why liquid product treating may be required, and provide examples of common processes used
• List the advantages of acid gas injection over installation of an SRU and TGCU

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This module is also part of the following online courses:

Gas Conditioning and Processing Principles - G3 - Online